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Dekay’s Brownsnake

Dekay's brownsnake © Joe Crowley


The Dekay’s brownsnake (Storeria dekayi) is brown, light brown or grey. It always has two parallel rows of small dark spots bordering a faint, wide stripe down the back. On some brownsnakes, these parallel spots may appear connected. The belly is outlined with black flecks and is usually light brown but sometimes pinkish or tan. This species also has a dark stripe on both sides of the neck behind the eyes and another below each eye. Juvenile Dekay’s brownsnakes may have a light-coloured marking around the neck. The dorsal scales of this species are keeled (ridged down the centre) and the anal plate is divided. The Dekay’s brownsnake is relatively small and grows to only 29 to 33 centimetres in length.

Dekay's brownsnake © Nick Cairns

Similar Species

Because of the light-coloured ring-like marking on the neck of the juvenile brownsnake, it may be confused with a ring-necked snake. Ring-necked snakes, however, have smooth scales, a yellow or orange belly and no patterning on the back. Red-bellied snakes have a bright red or sometimes red-orange or pink belly and thin stripes down the back rather than spots.

Dekay's brownsnake © Joe Crowley


The Dekay’s brownsnake occurs in forested regions and can be found in diverse habitats, including forests, wetlands, forest clearings, edge habitats and even urban areas. These snakes spend much of their time under logs, rocks, boards, leaves and other cover. They overwinter communally underground or in building foundations.

View an interactive map of the known ranges of Dekay’s brownsnakes in Ontario.


Dekay’s brownsnakes breed in the spring soon after emerging from hibernation. Females incubate the fertilized eggs internally and give birth to five to 29 live young in late summer. The newborn snakes are about six to eight centimetres in length.

These snakes are primarily nocturnal, though they may be active during the day as well. They eat a variety of invertebrates such as insects, slugs and earthworms, and occasionally small fish or amphibians. When threatened, brownsnakes may flatten themselves against the ground and release a foul-smelling musk if handled.

Other names: northern brown snake, northern brownsnake, brown snake, Dekay’s snake

Dekay's brownsnake © Noah Cole

Threats and Trends

The Dekay’s brownsnake is fairly common and widespread within its Ontario range, although little information on its abundance is available. This species is fairly tolerant of human disturbances to the landscape. Predation, road mortality and pesticide use in urban areas are threats to this species.

Dekay's brownsnake © Joe Crowley

Current Status and Protection

The Dekay’s brownsnake was assessed as Not at Risk by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada in 2002. This species has not been assessed by the Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. The species has no protection under the Ontario Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists the global status of the Dekay’s brownsnake as Least Concern. The species’ status was confirmed in May 2012.

Learn more about reptile and amphibian conservation and what you can do to help these species on our Reptile and Amphibian Stewardship page.

Dekay's brownsnake © Joe Crowley

What You Can Do

Dekay's brownsnake © Noah Cole